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Table 7 Categorization of studies falling in two categories: Behavioral and Cognitive (B + C), Affective and Cognitive (A + C), Affective and Behavioral (A + B)

From: Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review

  Paper Game elements Gamified activity Reported Outcome
(Boskic & Hu, 2015) Choice, role playing, feedback Course assignments Increased engagement understanding?
(Ibanez et al., 2014) Badges, leaderboard Course activities Confirmation of the effect of gamification on engagement and learning?
(Krause et al., 2015) Points, achievements, leaderboards, avatars Online course activities Improved retention period and learning performance
(Laskowski & Badurowicz, 2014) Points, badges, leaderboard Overall course activities Improved engagement and performance?
(Lehtonen et al., 2015) Points, badges, Online class activities Increased online activities and learning performance?
(Nevin et al., 2014) Badges, levels, feedback, leaderboard, voluntary participation Interactions with a learning environment Increased knowledge retention, reduced attrition
(Pedro et al., 2015b) Points, badges, levels, feedback, ranking Interactions with a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) Improved performance, reduced undesirable behaviors in VLE?
(Pettit et al., 2015) Challenge, competition, progress, status, achievement, prizes, chance, surprise, anticipation, humor Interactions with an Audience Response System (ARS) Increased engagement and learning
(Poole et al., 2014) Points, leaderboards Class activities Increased engagement, fosters learning?
(Barrio et al., 2015) Points Learning activities using a Student Response System (SRS) Improved motivation, attention, learning performance?
(Bonde et al., 2014) Simulation, narrative, fictional characters Lab activities Increased learning outcomes and motivation
(Hanus & Fox, 2015) Badges, leaderboard, virtual coins, pseudonyms In-class and out-of-class activities Improving satisfaction, empowerment, academic performance not confirmed
(Mekler et al., 2015) Points, levels, leaderboard Image annotation Increased competence need and performance?
(Su & Cheng, 2015) Badges, leaderboard, missions Field activities Increased motivation and learning?
A + B (Perry, 2015) Points, badges Interactions with a language learning system Increased playfulness and engagement in learning?