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Table 6 Categorization of the studies falling into a single category (Behavioral (B), Affective (A) or Cognitive (C))

From: Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review

Cat Paper Game elements Gamified activity Reported Outcome
B (Amriani et al., 2014) Points, badges, leaderboard, status, levels, unlockable content, customization Learning interactions in Virtual Realty Improved participation and engagement?
(Hew et al., 2016) Points, badges, leaderboard Project activities The effect of gamification on engagement?
(Holman et al., 2013) Badges, leveling, autonomy, leaderboard, grade predictor Overall class activities The impact of grade predictor on planning the work over the course
(Knutas et al., 2014) Points, badges, up-vote, down-vote Collaborative learning Improved student collaboration?
(Lambruschini & Pizarro, 2015) Points, badges, leaderboard Course participation Boosted communication, participation, punctuality?
(Landers & Landers, 2015) Leaderboards Course project activities Improved time on task
(Latulipe et al., 2015) Stamps, tokens, leaderboard In-class course activities Encouraged harder work and engagement?
(Lehtonen et al., 2015) Points, badges, leaderboard Online Java exercises Increased use of an open learning environment
(Smith et al., 2014) Merit points, badges, voting Online discussions Improved participation and quality of online discussions
(Utomo & Santoso, 2015) Badges, progress bar Online learning activities Fostered learning activities?
A (Auvinen et al., 2015) Badges, heatmap Online exercises Differences in reacting to gamification vs. feedback?
(Boticki et al., 2015) Badges Mobile driven learning activities Motivated a specific category of students?
(Christy & Fox, 2014) Leaderboard Assessment Created stereotype threat in specific circumstances?
(Codish & Ravid, 2015) Points, badges, riddles Interactions with a Learning Management System (LMS) Evidence that gamification behavior patterns predict playfulness
(Hakulinen et al., 2015) Badges Homework exercises Improved motivation
(Hasegawa et al., 2015) Points, trials, character, ranking, progress Vocabulary learning Motivated continuous learning
(Morschheuser et al., 2014) Points, badges, personas Interactions with a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) Increased intention to use the PLE?
(Shi et al., 2014) Leaderboard, progress, feedback, social status Interactions with a learning environment Increased intrinsic motivation?
(Sillaots, 2014) Points, scoreboard, goals, avatar, feedback, levels, luck, competition In-class activities Mixed acceptance of game elements
(Simoes et al., 2015) Points, badges, leaderboard Homework in the Schooooools LMS Increased disposition to the experience flow?
C (Anderson et al., 2015) Points, badges, leaderboard, competition Assessment Improved performance?
(Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015) Points Assessment No effect on performance
(Bernik et al., 2015) Points, badges, leaderboard, progress Learning activities within a course module Improved performance?
(Jang et al., 2015) Point, levels, life points, avatars, feedbacks, time pressure Tutorial driven learning activities Improved learning performance
(Long & Aleven, 2014) Stars/badges Problem solving with re-practicing No improvement of learning
(Paiva et al., 2015) Points, badges Interaction with an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) Correlation between points, badges and learning
  1. Note. The first column (Cat) contains the categories, while the second column contains the papers reporting the corresponding outcomes. The question mark ”?” placed after a statement in the outcomes column marks the corresponding results as inconclusive