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Table 4 Number of game elements tested in the studies

From: Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review

Number game elements used Nu (%) Papers
1 element 11 (22%) (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015; Barrio et al., 2015; Boticki et al., 2015; Christy & Fox, 2014; Davis & Klein, 2015; Hakulinen et al., 2015; Landers & Landers, 2015; Long & Aleven, 2014; Pedro et al., 2015a; Tu et al., 2015; Tvarozek & Brza, 2014)
2 elements 8 (16%) (Auvinen et al., 2015; Bonde et al., 2014; Ibanez et al., 2014; Leach et al., 2014; Paiva et al., 2015; Perry, 2015; Poole et al., 2014; Utomo & Santoso, 2015)
3 elements 16 (31%) (Anderson et al., 2015; Auvinen et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2015; Boskic & Hu, 2015; Codish & Ravid, 2015; Hanus & Fox, 2015; Hew et al., 2016; Knutas et al., 2014; Lambruschini & Pizarro, 2015; Laskowski & Badurowicz, 2014; Latulipe et al., 2015; Lehtonen et al., 2015; Mekler et al., 2015; Morschheuser et al., 2014; Simoes et al., 2015; Su & Cheng, 2015)
More than 3 elements 16 (31%) (Amriani et al., 2014; Barata et al., 2014; Chang & Wei, 2015; Codish & Ravid, 2014; Hasegawa et al., 2015; Herbert et al., 2014; Holman et al., 2015; Jang et al., 2015; Knutas et al., 2014; Krause et al., 2015; Nevin et al., 2014; Pedro et al., 2015b; Pettit et al., 2015; Shi et al., 2014; Sillaots, 2014; Sillaots, 2015)