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Table 11 Categorization of studies falling in two categories: Behavioral and Cognitive (B + C), Affective and Cognitive (A + C), Affective and Behavioral (A + B)

From: Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review

  Paper Game elements Gamified activity Reported Outcome
(Krause et al., 2015) Points, achievements, leaderboards, avatars Online course activities Improves retention period and learning performance
(Nevin et al., 2014) Badges, levels, feedback, leaderboard, voluntary participation Interactions with a learning environment Increases knowledge retention, reduces attrition
(Pettit et al., 2015) Challenge, competition, progress, status, achievement, prizes, chance, surprise, anticipation, humor ARS interactions Increases engagement and learning
(Bonde et al., 2014) Simulation, narrative, fictional characters Lab activity Increases learning outcomes and motivation
(Hanus & Fox, 2015) Badges, leaderboard, virtual coins, pseudonyms In-class and out-of-class activities No improvement of satisfaction, empowerment, academic performance