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Table 11 Categorization of studies falling in two categories: Behavioral and Cognitive (B + C), Affective and Cognitive (A + C), Affective and Behavioral (A + B)

From: Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review

  Paper Game elements Gamified activity Reported Outcome
B
+
C
(Krause et al., 2015) Points, achievements, leaderboards, avatars Online course activities Improves retention period and learning performance
(Nevin et al., 2014) Badges, levels, feedback, leaderboard, voluntary participation Interactions with a learning environment Increases knowledge retention, reduces attrition
(Pettit et al., 2015) Challenge, competition, progress, status, achievement, prizes, chance, surprise, anticipation, humor ARS interactions Increases engagement and learning
A
+
C
(Bonde et al., 2014) Simulation, narrative, fictional characters Lab activity Increases learning outcomes and motivation
(Hanus & Fox, 2015) Badges, leaderboard, virtual coins, pseudonyms In-class and out-of-class activities No improvement of satisfaction, empowerment, academic performance