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Table 10 Categorization of studies falling into a single category: Behavioral (B), Affective (A) or Cognitive (C)

From: Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review

Cat Paper Game elements Gamified activity Reported Outcome
B (Holman et al., 2013) Badges, leveling, autonomy, leaderboard, grade predictor Overall class activities The impact of grade predictor on planning the work over the course
(Landers & Landers, 2015) Leaderboards Course project activities Improves time on task
(Lehtonen et al., 2015) Points, badges, leaderboard Online Java exercises Increases the use of an open learning environment
(Smith et al., 2014) Merit points, badges, voting Online discussions Improves participation and quality of online discussions
A (Hakulinen et al., 2015) Badges Homework exercises Improves motivation
(Hasegawa et al., 2015) Points, trials, character, ranking, progress Vocabulary learning Motivates continuous learning
C (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015) Points Assessment No effect on performance
(Jang et al., 2015) Points, levels, life points, avatars, feedbacks, time pressure Tutorial driven learning activities Improves learning performance
(Long & Aleven, 2014) Stars/badges Problem solving with re-practicing Does not improve learning
(Paiva et al., 2015) Points, badges Interaction with ITS Correlation between points, badges and learning