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Table 6 Scale Items

From: LMS-enabled blended learning utilization in distance tertiary education: establishing the relationships among facilitating conditions, voluntariness of use and use behaviour

S/N Items on Voluntariness of Use
1. I feel I am being forced to use the online learning system in addition to face to face instruction.
2. I think any online learning system usage to support face-to-face distance education delivery should be made optional.
3. Although it might be helpful using the online learning system to support face to face teaching and learning, it is not made compulsory.
4. The college does not require me to use the online learning system in addition to the existing face to face teaching and learning mode.
S/N Items on Facilitating Conditions
1. I have the resources necessary to use the online learning system in addition to face to face.
2. I have the knowledge necessary to use the online learning system to support face to face.
3. The online learning system is compatible with other systems I use to complement face to face. (Removed)
4. When I am in difficulty in utilizing online learning system for online learning activities to support face to face, the system’s support team is available for assistance. (Removed)
5. The management has provided enough support towards the use of the online learning system together with face to face interaction.
S/N Items on Use Behaviour
1. I used the online learning system for online forum discussions after face to face.
2. I used the online learning system for uploading and sharing learning resources before and after face to face sessions. (Removed)
3. I used the online learning system for announcements on teaching and learning activities before and after face to face.
4. I used the online learning system for video-conferencing to support face to face interaction.
5. I used the online learning system for providing links to additional online resources for students after face to face sessions.