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Table 2 Description of relational transaction practices and outcomes

From: Engagement in cloud-supported collaborative learning and student knowledge construction: a modeling study

Second order constructs First order Items Measurement items no
Cognitive engagement Shallow 1–3 6
Meaningful 4–6
Cognitive presence Triggering event 1–3 12
Exploration 4–6
Integration 7–9
Resolution 10–12
Knowledge sharing Sense of self-worth 1–4 9
Willingness to support 5–9
Reflective thinking Habitual action 1, 5, 9, and 13 16
Understand 2, 6, 10, and 14
Reflection 3, 7, 11, and 15
Critical reflection 4, 8, 12, and 16
Knowledge construction Problem understanding 1–7 20
Achieving perspective 8–14
Commitment 15–20