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Table 5 Description of Variables

From: Integrating students’ perspectives about online learning: a hierarchy of factors

  Description
Dependent Variable
 Online Acceptance Minus log sum of 1(strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) rating of 6 items (Cronbach’s α = 0.8002):
• I enjoy online learning.
• My overall impression of hybrid/online learning is very good.
• I often speak or communicate to others in online classes.
• The instructors of online/hybrid classes are generally responsive.
• Instructors reduce and catch cheating effectively in hybrid/online classes.
• I am comfortable with online learning technologies.
 F2F Preference Minus log sum of 1(strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) rating of 4 items (Cronbach’s α = 0.7525)
• I enjoy face-to-face classes more.
• I learn more in face-to-face classes.
• I often speak or communicate to others in face-to-face classes.
• I think that fairness and equity is better in face-to-face classes.
 Selection Online Class Log percent online class selection going forward
Independent Variables
 Undergraduate (vs. graduate) Graduate (1) vs. Undergraduate (0)
 Age Log year of age
 Race White (1), African American (2), API (3), Latino (4), and Other (5)
 Work Status Full Time (2), Part Time (1), Not Work (0)
 Distance to University Log number of miles away from campus
 Number of HD/OL Classes Taken Log number of classes taken
 Basic Online Modality Minus Factor score
 Instructional Support Minus Factor score
 Teaching Presence Minus Factor score
 Cognitive Presence Minus Factor score
 Online Social Comfort Minus Factor score
 Interactive Modality Minus Factor score
 Social Presence Minus Factor score