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Table 3 Priorities of CSFs and Factor Reliability

From: Integrating students’ perspectives about online learning: a hierarchy of factors

Ranka Critical Success Factors # of Items n Mean Std Dev Cronbach’s α
1 Basic Online Modality 5 818 1.4590 0.5521 0.7663
2 Instructional Support 8 816 1.6513 0.6403 0.8405
3 Teaching Presence 8 796 1.8270 0.7461 0.9233
4 Cognitive Presence 7 791 2.1715 0.7890 0.8957
5 Online Social Comfort 4 809 2.2464 0.9978 0.8602
6 Online Interactive Modality 3 818 2.2637 0.9892 0.7853
7 Social Presence 6 803 2.5571 0.9020 0.8611
  1. a Ranking is based on the average mean of students’ ranking importance of survey items: 1 = Very High, 2 = High, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Somewhat Low, and 5 = Very Low; Lower averages indicate greater importance