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Table 3 Comparison of social presence by indicators

From: Does mobile instant messaging facilitate social presence in online communication? A two-stage study of higher education students

DimensionsIndicatorsSignificance of difference (MIM vs. forum)
Mann-Whitney UWilcoxon WZAsymp. Sig. (2-tailed)
AffectiveExpression of emotions29,37343,738− 4.75< 0.001*
Use of humor34,42248,787− 1.500.133
Self-disclosure34,486122,057− 0.710.480
InteractiveContinuing an idea34,36848,733− 0.660.509
Asking questions34,98349,348− 0.410.684
Complimenting, expressing appreciation33,46147,826− 1.600.109
Expressing agreement33,203120,774− 2.000.046*
CohesiveVocatives31,777119,348− 3.90< 0.001*
Addressing the group with inclusive pronouns33,118120,689− 1.600.110
Phatics29,22343,588− 5.16< 0.001*
Providing support34,22348,588− 2.320.021*
  1. *p < 0.05