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Table 2 Stage 2: Frequencies and densities of indicators

From: Does mobile instant messaging facilitate social presence in online communication? A two-stage study of higher education students

DimensionsIndicatorsTotal frequencyAverage density
MIMForumMIMForum
AffectiveExpression of emotions13612625
Use of humor18372
Self-disclosure643342
Total21848739
InteractiveContinuing an idea113471810
Asking questions361242.8
Complimenting, expressing appreciation7825124.5
Expressing agreement433653.5
Total2701203921
CohesiveVocatives253223
Addressing or referring to the group using inclusive pronouns12512987
Phatics1016161
Providing support14080
Total2651673411