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Table 1 Categories and indicators of social presence

From: Does mobile instant messaging facilitate social presence in online communication? A two-stage study of higher education students

CategoriesIndicatorsDefinitionExample from interactions
AffectiveExpression of emotionsConventional or unconventional expressions of emotion, including repetitious punctuation, conspicuous capitalization, emoticons, emoji?, and stickers“Hahahaha [ThumbsUp]a so this way does work.”
Use of humorTeasing, cajoling, irony, understatements, and sarcasm“Are you serious that your parents will beat you? I will tell your mom about that!”
Self-disclosurePresentation of details of life outside class or expresses vulnerability“I was working part time in a center that was providing corporate training.”
InteractiveContinue an ideaReplying to a previous thread rather than starting a new one, using “Reply” in the forum and “@” in MIM (software dependent)“@Sara (pseudo), Just got an idea after reading your reply.”
Asking questionsAsking questions of other students or the moderator“Were you the only one responsible for the course?”
Complimenting, expressing appreciationComplimenting others or contents of others’ messages“Your sharing is interesting!”
Expressing agreementExpressing agreement with others or about the content of others’ messages“I agree with you.”
CohesiveVocativesAddressing or referring to participants by name“Hi Michael, I agree with you.”
Addresses or refers to the group using inclusive pronounsAddressing the group as we, us, our, and group or other implicit ways“I was really happy to meet everyone last evening.”
PhaticsCommunication that serves a social function: greetings and closures“I was really happy to meet everyone last evening.”
Providing supportSupport provided by either students or the instructor to others in the group“This research finding provides a hint to your question.”
  1. aThe text in brackets represents emoticons, emoji?, and stickers