Educational innovation and digital competencies: the case of OER in a private Venezuelan university
© The Author(s) 2016
Received: 16 February 2015
Accepted: 25 May 2015
Published: 25 February 2016
The challenge for universities in developing countries of Latin America is to provide quality education and to promote the development of the digital competencies necessary for an active citizenship. Nevertheless, the use of technology and open educational resources (OER) promote greater efficiency and social penetration. The objective of this research is to analyze how the attributes of innovation develop when OER are integrated with learning environments that promote digital skills. Case study and data recollection were applied to the interview, the log, the observation, and the document analysis. Results indicated that a combination of innovation attributes generates a change in: a) educational methodology, b) technological tools and ways to present its contents, and c) the way the teacher thinks and students act. The use of innovative elements allowed subjects to overcome space and time barriers, setting the foundation for the development of blended learning in the institution.
Introduction and situation
In the present knowledge society and globalization there is a need to make university activities more efficient and more oriented towards permeating society. In this sense the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization determined that during 2014–2017 higher education’s three axes would be: a) internationalization of knowledge, b) incorporation of long distance education programs and use of ICT, and c) support the policies oriented to those actions (Didou, 2014). This indicates that in the use of ICT, OER and the impulse towards mixed gender and distance education, Higher Education Institutions (HEI) are relevant in the regional and worldwide agenda pointing towards educational innovation.
As a consequence, the teacher must now proceed as a learning facilitator, and the students have the lead roll in the teaching-learning process. For Salinas (2004), the main challenge in educational innovation is in the adoption of processes on behalf of people, groups, and institutions. This requires changes in attitudes and activities, as well as in the paradigm that emerges in the knowledge society where students and teachers build knowledge together.
In the educational innovation process, it’s important to have authorities and teachers participate. This study has been addressed by various authors (Boahin & Hofman, 2012; Ellsworth, 2000; Margalef & Arenas, 2006; Martínez, Toledo, & Román, 2009; Ramírez, 2012) and by organizations such as UNESCO’s Regional Office for Education for Latin America and the Caribbean (OREALC/UNESCO, 2013). These studies agree on the fact that the educational innovation process represents a favorable and intentional change in the educational process and involves contents, methods, practices, and means for knowledge transmission.
Teachers have a primary role in educational innovation because they also have to take into consideration the needs of the rest of the educational communities. Anderson (2008) lays this out when he says that the teacher must also focus on the cultural context and the diversity in which the educational process takes place.
Once the decision to innovate has been made, authorities and promoters must know the attributes and elements involved in the process. There are different models that study the educational innovation process, but for this research only two were used: 1) three of the five attributes from Rogers (1995) diffusion model: relative advantage, compatibility and complexity, and 2) the model mentioned by Ramírez (2012) which refers to internal attributes of innovation: the idea of the new, the change phenomenon, the final action, and the process. The knowledge of the attributes allows innovation promoters to manage the factors that affect adopters and to apply measures and adequate strategies before, during, and after its implementation.
On the other hand, the use of ICTs supports innovative changes in education, and more concretely, web 2.0 tools enable education so it can be adaptable to the different scenarios and students’ needs. Particularly, wikis are of the most academic tools because of their innumerable advantages and applicability to collaborative work (Area, 2009; Barberà, 2009). Likewise, learning through the use of ICTs can happen independently from space and time, interaction can be both synchronous and asynchronous, and learning can even be understood as a continuum that extends all throughout life (Cobo & Moravec, 2011).
One of the enabling elements of educational innovation is the incorporation of OER. These are digitalized materials offered freely to educators, schooled and self-educated students who can use and reuse them to learn and investigate (Hylén, 2006). There are various types of OERs, which vary both in the use and the teacher’s need. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCDE, 2008) distinguishes between formative, content, tools, and implementation resources.
The use of OERs in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) offers various benefits: (a) the decrease in costs by unifying objectives, processes and implementation policies, (b) enrichment of the educational process, (c) development of competencies for technological appropriation, (d) educational quality improvement and efficiency, (f) a reduction of time needed to prepare class when OERs are easily accessible (Mortera, Salazar, & Rodríguez, 2013; Nikoi & Armellini, 2012; Ramírez, 2012).
OERs are also tools that can boost learning. Diverse investigations refer to the OERs as resources that have a positive impact on the teaching and learning process by promoting interactive exploration and student collaboration (Bonilla, García, & González, 2010). The use of videos as a didactic expository strategy presently has a greater acceptance on behalf of students in regards to comprehensive reading (Pérez, 2013). This situation coincides with the results from Mortera et al. (2013) investigation where 76 % of teachers use OER in video format.
Just as James and Bossu (2014) expressed, the use of OER and the perspective of making education more flexible, requires HEIs to: (a) provide a greater knowledge of the OERs with students and teachers, and (b) develop the digital competencies necessary to increase the student’s interest in open access content and the teacher’s motivation to produce OER.
In order to produce OER it is indispensable to instruct both teachers and students in the subject of copyright protection (Tenorio, 2013) and to apply the Creative Commons licenses: the making of and an effective reutilization of these resources allows for individual creativity and the maintenance of the equilibrium between the author’s interests and those of the public. Effective creation and reuse of these resources allows for a decrease in the gap between those who take advantage of their benefits and those who don’t (Cobo, 2013). To develop the capacity to use, produce, and appropriate OER allows both teachers and students to take advantage of their benefits.
The report published by the European Commission in 2012 indicates that digital competencies are a need and a public right. They are defined as: a body of knowledge, abilities, and attitudes that are required when ICTs and digital media are used to perform tasks, solve problems, communicate, manage knowledge, collaborate, create and share content, as well as build knowledge in an ethical and reflective manner about work, leisure, participation, learning, socialization, consumption and empowerment (Ferrari, 2012).
Finally, the increased and varied (academic and non academic) information available on the Internet, online businesses and virtual corporative government, among other factors, are evidence of the need to develop digital competencies in students. Anafo and Filson (2014) study reveals that the deficiency developing digital competencies in students can hinder the teaching and learning process.
This study used the unique case method (Stake, 2007) from a qualitative approach. It sought to answer the question: How do innovative attributes operate when digital competencies are being developed, while integrating OER to higher education learning environments? The constructs were innovation and digital competencies.
Postgraduate students and demographic data
Interviewee’s employment status
Economy and Administration
Industrial Relations and Social Work
Between 23 and 29
Between 30 and 36
Between 37 and 45
Theme, categories and indicators
Study indicators and categories
Innovation strategies and educational environments
Innovation attributes: a) the idea of the new; b) final action; c) compatibility; d) relative advantage and e) ease of use
Evaluation of innovation
Learning environments mediated by ICT
Use of OER
Collaborative work through the use of Wikis
Impact on teaching and learning processes
Development of digital competencies
Effective and efficient information analysis
Evaluate information and its sources in a critical way and incorporate the basic knowledge and value system to it.
According to what Mack, Woodsong, Macqueen, Guest, and Namey (2011) recommended, the data recollection must be adjusted to what will be investigated. Teachers, students, and significant documents were selected.
Data gathering techniques
The data gathering techniques were: a) passive participant and moderate participant observation (Spradley, 1980) for student interactions with the wiki and face-to-face classes, b) face-to-face interview with open questions for students and the teacher in order to get useful results about the aspects that could not be observed directly, like the one mentioned by Creswell (2012), and c) analysis of meaningful documents related to data in the teacher’s log, student’s delivery of a partial degree project delivery, and formal documents from the postgraduate coordination.
Data collection and analysis
The data was collected in a word-for-word format, codified by theme, downloaded to an Excel worksheet, text segments were analyzed and compared, and patterns were determined according to what Stake (2007) mentions. Validity was attained through a triple entry table that took into account investigations related to the study’s categories which allowed individual triangulation. Finally, for the data analysis, Stake (2007) follows two strategies in the case study: the direct interpretation of individual examples and a categorical sum of them.
Investigation, results, and analysis
After applying the instruments and executing the categorical sums (Yin, 2012; Stake, 2007), the results are presented and contrasted with the conceptual information according to the categories used in order to give validity and reliability to the findings and their results:
Strategies and educational environment innovation
Educational innovation is a change process in the technological infrastructure. It supposes a change in methodology, in its content and the way of presenting it, and even in the way teachers think. This discovery was made during the student interview. They considered that the technology and personalized attention were innovative in the learning process. Asynchronous interaction between the teacher and students as well as the creation of collaborative groups was mentioned by 71 % of the students, 86 % considered that the video presentations (OER) favored a change in their attitude towards the use of information and its availability. In this regard, the OREALC/UNESCO (2013) mentions that educational innovation must recognize the different contexts, interests, and characteristics while contributing to overcoming space and time limitations, and thus facilitating the development of new learning experiences.
Learning environments mediated by ICT
In a learning environment mediated by ICT, the use of OER promotes interactive exploration and collaboration among students. However, the teacher needs to be trained to have access and locate those resources, hence all the students expressed the importance of the availability and accessibility of the videos (OER), and 71 % mentioned that they were useful in executing projects. On the other hand, the teacher expressed she had a hard time finding adequate OERs for the academic objectives. Cobo (2013) argues that the shortage of teachers and students that are trained to create and reuse OERs precludes the effective use of these resources. As a consequence, in spite of the benefits in ICTs and OERs, users need to be competent in order to explore and have access to quality education.
The use of web 2.0 technology, and more specifically the wiki as a platform for the development of collaborative work, propels the generation of shared knowledge and development of digital competencies, but the teacher needs to monitor it. This is noticeable in the students’ contributions to the wiki, which were analyzed by the teacher and through the interview answers, where 71 % of the students mentioned that the tool enabled collaborative work and impacted their process in searching for information. This information agrees with Pérez-Mateo, Romero, and Romeu (2014) who considered that the collaborative construction of a wiki project enables the acquisition of digital competencies.
Likewise, the ICT and use of OER can impact the teaching-learning process favorably by enabling asynchronous communication and boosting the teacher’s new roll as a facilitator of the educational process. This result could be observed when all the students expressed a perceived advantage in accessibility and availability of the information on video (OER), and 71 % commented that it got better with time thanks to the teacher’s asynchronous attention, the added value in video content, and the information available on the wiki. Tenorio (2013) mentions that blended learning is a space that fosters the inclusion of OER, generating educational practices that are open to quality.
Development of digital competencies
López (2007) and the European Parliament and Council (2006) mention that this competency is seen in a person’s abilities, knowledge and attitudes put in practice to identify and effectively look for what he or she needs. In our study, all the students worked out a plan in order to look for information and 71 % used academic sources. After analyzing the documents, the log, and the interview results, we inferred that the development of the digital competency was easier due to the fact that the students knew and used relevant information that increased the knowledge construction process.
Discussion and conclusions
Based on the evidence and findings in this study, the objective of the investigation related to the way in which innovation attributes work when developing digital competencies integrated with OER in the higher education learning environment. The following conclusions are the result of this study;
The first category related to innovation and educational environments has a combination of five analyzed innovation attributes. The way it worked created a change in methodology, in the technological tools, in the presentation of content, and even in the way the teacher thinks and acts with the students.
In regards to the learning environments mediated through ICT and the development of digital competencies, which were the second and third categories, the internal attributes of the study on innovation related to the idea of novelties and the final actions demonstrated that educational innovation through the use of OER, the wiki, and the collaborative work methodology allowed students to overcome space and time barriers in the face-to-face class. This facilitated the development of digital competencies and put relevant information in the students’ hands in order to serve as scaffolding in the knowledge construction process supporting their autonomy and the improvement of their analysis, synthesis, and expression with precision and responsibility.
Finally, the attributes that helped implement and disseminate information were: a) the relative advantage over other resources and tools given the efficacy and efficiency of the process and the learning results that made the quality and success of the innovative process visible, b) a strong compatibility with the participants’ experiences and needs and the congruence with learning objectives, and c) the ease of use of the wiki and availability of the videos (OER) that was expressed by the students.
The analysis of the results allows room to make some recommendations and contributions for future investigations:
Based on these results, we suggest the continuous research in educational innovation that includes the use of different web 2.0 collaborative tools and their impact in the teaching-learning process such as the use of Google Docs in order to broaden the options to implement changes impulsed by the institutions and teachers in higher education, thus setting a foundation for a sustained developed of combined learning.
In regards to the use of OER, it is important to consider studying the challenge teachers from developing countries encounter when trying to access and locate resources in a systematic way. Because the HEI of these countries don’t have the possibility to implement digital repositories with educational resources under Creative Commons licenses.
Finally, the results of this study offer opportunities for teachers interested in innovating with ICT and OER without their institutions’ investment of important capital and taking into consideration the limited resources of Latin America’s Emerging Economies. With this document, we invite other researchers to continue analyzing the contributions to improve innovative education practices using technologies.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- ACRL. (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/standards.pdf Google Scholar
- Anafo, P., & Filson, C. (2014). Promoting information literacy among undergraduate students of Ashesi University College, Ghana. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). Paper 1032. Available in: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1032 Google Scholar
- Anderson, T. (2008). Towards a theory of online learning. In T. Anderson (Ed.), The theory and practice of online learning (pp. 45–74). Canada: AU Press. Retrieved from: http://www.aupress.ca/books/120146/ebook/99Z_Anderson_2008-Theory_and_Practice_of_Online_Learning.pdf Google Scholar
- Area, M. (2009). Las wikis en mi experiencia docente. Del diccionario de la asignatura al diario de clase. Red U – Revista de Docencia Universitaria, Monográfico IV. Número especial dedicado a Wiki y educación superior en España. Retrieved from: http://www.um.es/ead/red/M12/0-area.pdf
- Barberà, E. (2009). Filosofía wiki: el compromiso de las soluciones. Revista De Docencia Universitaria, 4. Retrieved from: http://www.um.es/ead/red/M11/intro.pdf
- Boahin, P., & Hofman, W. H. A. (2012). Implementation of innovations in higher education: the case of competency-based training in Ghana. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 49(3), 283–293. Retrieved from: http://catedra.ruv.itesm.mx/bitstream/987654321/566/8/ebook View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bonilla, M., García, F., & González, L. (2010). Incorporación de REA como medio para promover el aprendizaje significativo a nivel universitario: un estudio de casos. In M. S. Ramírez & J. V. Burgos (Eds.), Recursos educativos abiertos en ambientes enriquecidos con tecnología: innovación en la práctica educativa (pp. 28–50). México: ITESM.Google Scholar
- Cobo, C. (2013). Exploration of open educational resources in non-English speaking communities. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(2), 106–128. Retrieved from: URL: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1493/2482 MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Cobo, C., & Moravec, J. (2011). Introducción al aprendizaje invisible: la (r) evolución fuera del aula (pp. 17–46). Barcelona: Aprendizaje Invisible. Hacia una nueva ecología de la educación. Colección Transmedia XXI. Universidad de Barcelona. Retrieved from: http://www.razonypalabra.org.mx/varia/AprendizajeInvisible.pdf Google Scholar
- Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Boston, EEUU: Pearson. Retrieved from: http://www.onlinecef.net/file.php/1/CEF_Resources/Research%20%20Method/__Educational_Research__Planning__Conducting__and_Evaluating_Quantitative_and_Qualitative_Research__4th_Edition_.pdf Google Scholar
- Didou, S. (2014). La UNESCO y la educación superior, 2014–2017: aportes de la Reunión de Cátedras UNESCO sobre la educación superior, las TIC en la educación y los profesores. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/ED/pdf/UNESCO-summary-report-chairs-2014-1.pdf Google Scholar
- Ellsworth, J. B. (2000). Surviving change: a survey of educational change models. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology: Syracuse University. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443417.pdf Google Scholar
- European Parliament & Council. (2006). Key competences for lifelong learning. Recommendation 2006/962/EC. Brussels. Retrieved from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32006H0962
- Ferrari, A. (2012). Digital competence in practice: an analysis of frameworks. JRC IPTS. doi:10.2791/82116. Retrieved from: http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?id=5099
- Galeano, M. E. (2004). El diseño de la investigación social cualitativa (pp. 27–54). Medellín: Diseño de Proyectos de investigación cualitativa. Fondo Editorial EAFIT. Retrieved from: http://books.google.es/books?id=Xkb78OSRMI8C&printsec=frontcover&hl=es&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Scholar
- Hylén, J. (2006). Open educational resources: opportunities and challenges. Proceedings of Open Education, 49–63. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/37351085.pdf
- James, R., & Bossu, C. (2014). Conversaciones desde el sur del ecuador: retos y oportunidades que plantean los REA en Oceanía. RUSC Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento, 11(3), 82–95. Retrieved from: http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/780/78031423007.pdf. doi:http://doi.dx.org/10.7238/rusc.v11i3.2220 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- López, J. C. (2007). ¿Qué es la competencia para manejar información (CMI)? Eduteca. Retrieved from: http://www.eduteka.org/modulos/1/148/486/1
- Mack, N., Woodsong, C., Macqueen, K., Guest, G., & Namey, E. (2011). Qualitative research methods overview. In N. Mack (Ed.), Qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field guide (pp. 1–12). USA: Family Health International. Retrieved from: http://www.fhi360.org/resource/qualitative-research-methods-data-collectors-field-guide Google Scholar
- Margalef, L., & Arenas, A. (2006). ¿Qué entendemos por innovación educativa? A propósito del desarrollo curricular. Perspectiva Educacional, 47(1), 13–31. Retrieved from: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=333328828002 Google Scholar
- Martínez, L., Toledo, D., & Román, R. (2009). El currículo frente al pensamiento de la innovación. Un estudio en algunas carreras de ingeniería. Memorias X Congreso Nacional de Investigación Educativa. Retrieved from: http://www.comie.org.mx/congreso/memoriaelectronica/v10/pdf/area_tematica_02/ponencias/1652-F.pdf
- Mortera, F., Salazar, A., & Rodríguez, F. (2013). Desarrollo de una metodología de búsqueda e implementación de (OA) y (REA) para la identificación de mejores prácticas académicas. Investigación Educativa de la Escuela de Graduados en Educación, 2(4), 19–28. Retrieved from: http://rieege.tecvirtual.mx/index.php/rieege/article/view/4/4 Google Scholar
- Nikoi, S., & Armellini, A. (2012). The OER mix in higher education: purpose, process, product, and policy. Distance Education, 33(2), 165–184. doi:10.1080/01587919.2012.697439 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- OCDE. (2008). Recursos Educativos Abiertos aspectos conceptuales. In Centro de Nuevas Iniciativas (pp. 35–44). Madrid: El conocimiento libre y los recursos educativos abiertos. Junta de Extremadura. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/spain/42281358.pdf Google Scholar
- OREALC/UNESCO. (2013). Enfoques estratégicos sobre las TICS en educación en América Latina. Santiago: UNESCO.Google Scholar
- Pérez, E. L. (2013). El video: herramienta de asimilación de contenidos en el aula de clase. Revista de Tecnología, 12(1), 66–72. Retrieved from: http://www.uelbosque.edu.co/publicaciones/revista_tecnologia_journal_technology/volumen12-numero1 Google Scholar
- Pérez-Mateo, M., Romero, M., & Romeu, T. (2014). Collaborative construction of a project as a methodology for acquiring digital competences. Comunicar, 21(42), 15–23. Retrieved from: EBSCO, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C42-2014-01 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ramírez, M. S. (2012). Modelos y estrategias de enseñanza para ambientes innovadores. Monterrey: Editorial Digital del Tecnológico de Monterrey.Google Scholar
- Rogers, E. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). NY: Free Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.ca/books?id=v1ii4QsB7jIC&printsec=frontcover&hl=es&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Scholar
- Salinas, J. (2004). Innovación docente y uso de las TIC en la enseñanza universitaria. RUSC Revista Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento, 6(1), 1–16. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7238/rusc.v1i1.228 Google Scholar
- Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. Nueva York: Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
- Stake, R. (2007). Investigación con estudios de casos (4tathth ed.). Madrid: Morata.Google Scholar
- Tenorio, G. (2013). Competencias para producción de REA en ambientes B-learning. In M. S. Ramírez (Ed.), Competencias docentes y prácticas educativas abiertas en educación a distancia (pp. 24–35). México: LULU. Retrieved from Web Temoa of ITESM in: http://catedra.ruv.itesm.mx/bitstream/987654321/745/1/eBook%20Mov%20abierto%20en%20educ%20distancia%20%28Ramirez%202013%29.pdf Google Scholar
- Yin, R. K. (2012). Applications of case study research (3ªthth ed.). California: Sage.Google Scholar